CRADLΣ offers a series of structured workshops designed to allow students to discover science concepts through Experiential Learning.
The workshops feature an independent handson component that allows students to explore and draw conclusions
from the data set obtained. The sessions also introduce the concept of garage science  that scientific experimentation is not restricted to the ivory towers of scientific research communities but rather is readily available and cheap to replicate.
For workshops
Class Size  10 (minimum) 40 (maximum) 
Suggested times  Mondays to Fridays: 9:30am or 2.30pm 
CRADLΣ Physical Sciences Student Workshops are conducted on request and delivered at Science Centre Singapore. Please enquire through cradle@science.edu.sg for programmes to be delivered in Schools.
Download the PDF version of the 2020 Programme Booklet
More about CRADLΣ.
Title
 Type
 Levels

Properties of Waves
 PLab
 Sec 2 to Sec 5

Electromagnetism
 PLab
 Sec 2 to PreU

Diffusion Cloud Chamber
 PLab
 Sec 2 to PreU

Navigation with Waves  PLab
 Sec 2 to PreU

Speed of Sound (Basic)
 PLab
 Sec 2 to PreU

Measuring Magnetic Field Strength
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Measuring Speed of Light (Basic / Advanced)
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Modern Microscopes
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Optical Spectroscopy
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Fuel Cells  PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Making History: Redefining the kilogramme  PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Superconductivity
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Organic Solar Cells
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Investigating Linear Motion & Collisions
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

Physics Modelling and Simulation using Python
 PLab
 Sec 3 to PreU

World of Spectra
 PLab
 Sec 1 to Sec 2

Diffraction as a Metrology Tool
 PLab
 PreU

Speed of Sound (Advanced)
 PLab
 PreU

Balmer Series & Bohr's Atomic Model
 PLab
 PreU

Electronic Structure of Semiconductors
 PLab
 PreU

AC Circuit Analysis (for Mathematics & Mathematically inclined students)
 PLab
 PreU

Bookings
To book our workshops, please log in to https://obs.science.edu.sg or fill in the Student Booking Form and email it to cradle@science.edu.sg (or fax it to 6561 6361).
Overseas school and Corporate group bookings
The listed course fees apply only to local schools. Overseas schools and all Corporate groups (including locally based corporate groups) can contact cradle@science.edu.sg to enquire on the course fees. Kindly note that admission rates to the Science Centre Singapore apply on top of the course fee.
General Enquiries
For booking enquiries, please email cradle@science.edu.sg.
Outreach Enquiries (cohortspecific)
To learn more about our schemes for schoolbased workshops or workshops/enrichment for a cohort, please contact:
Lee Shu En (School Outreach Educator)
Email: lee_shu_en@moe.edu.sg
Physical Sciences Workshops

Description  Waves are everywhere around us. A disturbance in a calm pond distorts the image reflected on the water surface and sends ripples outwards. The pitch of the siren of ambulance changes as it approaches us. The way we see, hear and communicate
is due to the way waves travel and transfer energy. Waves can transfer energy with a little displacement of the medium [sound and water waves], or no medium at all [light waves]. Students will:  learn about transverse and longitudinal waves
 observe waves in action and how they interact with each other
 gain an understanding of the properties of waves, such as wavelength, frequency and amplitude.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 2 to 5 
Syllabus Link  Physics Olevel: General Wave Properties. 
Group size  15 minimum, 40 maximum 
Duration  2.5 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $15/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Electromagnetism is responsible for many phenomena encountered in our daily lives. While it was first discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted, it was Michael Faraday’s breakthrough in 1821 that propelled electromagnetism into modern applications. He successfully built two devices to produce “electromagnetic rotation”, one of which is now known as the homopolar motor. He further discovered electromagnetic induction and all these led to the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology, i.e. DC motors and AC generators.
Students will:  learn the basics of electromagnetism
 make their own homopolar motor and experience the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction.
 observe and investigate the turning effect on a currentcarrying coil and the effects of a changing magnetic field on a conductor.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 2 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics Olevel: Electromagnetism, Electromagnetic Induction. 
Group size  15 minimum, 40 maximum 
Duration  2.5 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  What does meteorology have to do with particle physics? In this workshop, participants will learn how a serendipitous observation led to the development of the cloud chamber particle detector by Charles Wilson (Nobel prize 1927), according to Lord Rutherford the “most wonderful and original instrument in scientific history”. Exploiting concepts such as condensation, evaporation, and supersaturation, participants will build their own cloud chambers and observe some of the natural ionising radiation surrounding us. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 2 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics Olevel: Pressure, States of matter, Evaporation/condensation, Electromagnetic spectrum Chemistry Olevel: Particulate nature of matter Physics ALevel: Energy, Thermal physics, Nuclear physics 
Group size  10 minimum, 24 maximum 
Duration  2 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $15/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  How can planes navigate in fog? How can a GPS (global positioning system) receiver determine its position (and why is it sometimes considerably off the mark)? Radio waves penetrate fog and clouds and have mostly obsoleted the lighthouses of old.In this workshop, we use ultrasonic waves as a model for radio waves. Students will:  use ultrasonic receivers and an oscilloscope to determine their position in the lab using direction (angulation) and time (lateration) measurements.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 2 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics OLevel: Waves, Interpretation of oscilloscope waveforms Physics ALevel: Wave motion, Use of an oscilloscope Mathematics OLevel: Geometry and measurement 
Group size  10 minimum, 24 maximum 
Duration  2 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $15/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  We use sound for numerous purposes such as to communicate with people, for entertainment (music and movies) and even as a second form of sight. In physics, sound is an excellent model for introducing wave phenomena in general. Students will:  learn to use an oscilloscope to measure the time it takes sound to travel for a given distance, and accurately determine the speed of sound.
 observe the phenomenon of sound reflection (echos).

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 2 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics OLevel: Waves (general properties, sound), Interpretation of oscilloscope waveforms 
Group size  10 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  2 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $15/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Besides gravity, electromagnetism is the next most encountered force in our everyday life. It is of immense practical importance and underlies numerous innovations that propelled humanity into the modern age – e.g. electricity generation (motors and transformers), modern communications and optics. In this workshop, participants will reenact Ørsted’s experiment that shows that an electric current gives rise to a magnetic field. They will measure magnetic forces using a current balance, derive the magnetic field constant μ0 and use it to determine the strength of Earth’s magnetic field. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Sec 3 to PreU
While this workshop covers concepts of Alevel physics syllabus, it is also suitable for upper secondary students with an aptitude and interest for science. Workshop materials can be customised according to the learning needs of participants upon request. 
Syllabus Link  Physics OLevel: Turning effect of forces, Mass and weight, Magnetism, Electromagnetism Physics ALevel: Forces, Electromagnetism 
Group size  10 minimum, 24 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  19th century experiments (e.g. by Michelson and Morley) and new theoretical approaches (Lorentz/Einstein) established the speed of light, c, as a fundamental property that ties together spacetime, the fabric of the universe. The speed of light is hence not just of great importance in the fields of optics and astronomy, but also fundamental for the microscopic structure of the world, e.g. in quantum physics. The speed of light also lies at the heart of everyday measurements: since 1983, the SI unit for length, the metre, is derived from the speed of light. Students will:  (Basic) determine the speed of light in air using a laser diode, a photo detector, and common electronic measurement instruments.
 (Advanced) explore and appreciate general problems in fast measurements (and how to deal with them) which may also clear some common misconceptions on how signals travel along a cable.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Sec 3 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  (Basic) Physics OLevel: Wave motion, Light, Reflections, DC circuits, Interpretation of oscilloscope waveforms (Basic) Physics ALevel: Wave motion, Use of an oscilloscope (Advanced) Physics OLevel: Wave motion, Light, Reflections, DC circuits, Interpretation of oscilloscope waveforms (Advanced) Physics ALevel: Wave motion, Use of an oscilloscope, Photoelectric effect 
Group size  10 minimum, 24 maximum 
Duration  2 hours (Basic); 3 hours (Advanced) 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $15/pax (Basic); $20/pax (Advanced) (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  The power to make tiny objects or structures visible has greatly expanded our understanding of nature, and has made micro and nanotechnology possible. Today, it is even possible to observe individual atoms and molecules! Students will :  learn about the principles of projective vs. scanning microscopy
 experience live demonstrations of common microscope types used in research laboratories: an optical microscope, an atomic force microscope, and a scanning electron microscope.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Sec 3 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics (Olevel): Newtonian mechanics, light, electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetism Chemistry (Olevel): atomic structure Physics (Alevel): Forces, electromagnetism, nuclear physics Chemistry (Alevel): atomic structure, nanomaterials 
Group size  10 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  2 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $12/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Spectroscopy is a class of techniques that investigates how radiation (such as, but not limited to light) is affected by interactions with matter. Our understanding of the world is largely based on spectroscopy – for example, many chemical elements were first discovered through their spectra, and our knowledge how atoms and molecules are built has been almost entirely derived from spectroscopic observations. Students will  build their own spectroscopes (which they can keep and use for further investigations) and use them to observe spectra of various light sources, culminating in the observation of Fraunhofer spectral lines in daylight. The characteristic properties of different types of spectra (atomic, molecular and solidstate origin) are qualitatively explained.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Sec 3 to PreU 
Topics   Physics OLevel: Light, Thin lens, Real & virtual images, Electromagnetic spectrum
 Physics ALevel: Waves, Superposition (diffraction), Energy levels, Line spectra
 Chemistry OLevel: Atomic structure, Covalent bonding, Chemical elements/periodic table
 Chemistry ALevel: Atomic structure, Orbitals, Chemical bonding

Group size  10 minimum, 40 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $30/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Fuel cells hold great promise in today’s global relentless search for new demand and supply of clean energy. In this workshop, participants will learn about the different fuel cell technologies and gain insight into the working principles of Alkaline and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Participants will get handson experience to perform electrolysis of water using solar energy (weather permitted) and store the hydrogen gas obtained to be used in a PEM fuel cell. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Sec 3 to PreU
Workshop materials can be customised according to the learning needs of participants upon request. 
Syllabus Link  Physics OLevel: Energy, Work & power, States of matter, Current of electricity, DC circuits Physics ALevel: DC circuits, Efficiency Chemistry OLevel: Chemistry of reactions (electrolysis, energy), Stoichiometry and mole concept, Air Chemistry ALevel: Electrochemistry 
Group size  10 minimum, 26 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Since May 2019, our units of measurement have been defined in terms of stable and experimentally reproducible constants of nature rather than arbitrary and fragile artefacts. This required a completely different experimental approach for defining the unit of mass, the kilogram. The key that made this redefinition practical is the development of precision measurement methods linking quantum phenomena with macroscopic behaviour. One of the officially recognised methods to implement the new kilogramme is a balance based on electromagnetic forces – the Kibble balance. Workshop participants will use a Kibble balance to measure currents and emf (voltage induced by motion in a magnetic field) and calculate the weight and mass of an unknown object. The Kibble balance is a showcase for the practical application of basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism. Students will also practise the use of an oscilloscope for acquiring data. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 3 to PreU 
Topics  Physics Olevel: Measurement  Physical quantities, units and measurement, Electricity and magnetism  current of electricity, electromagnetism, electromagnetic induction 
Group size  10 minimum, 15 maximum 
Duration  2.5 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  The electrical conductivity of certain materials changes dramatically as they are cooled to sufficiently low temperatures. In 1911, Heike KamerlinghOnnes found that some materials might enter a state where electrical resistance completely disappears. In this workshop, students will apply Ohm’s law and the 4wire (Kelvin) technique to accurately measure small resistances. They will observe the resistance of a ceramic superconductor material diminish – and suddenly disappear completely – as the material is cooled down using liquid nitrogen. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Sec 3 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics OLevel: Thermal properties of matter, Current of electricity, DC circuits Physics ALevel: DC circuits, Modern physics, Temperature and ideal gases 
Group size  10 minimum, 24 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  The advent of solar cells in 1883 by Charles Fritts was the beginning of the vast advancement of methods to harness the renewable energy as a form of clean energy. In the 1990s, the notion to mimic photosynthesis has led to the development of Organic Solar Cells. This technology replaces chlorophyll in green plants with organic dyes (such as blueberry extract) and uses other electrolytes and catalysts to simulate the internal environment of a leaf. Students will:  fabricate and assemble an organic solar cell.
 Using our homebuilt kit, students will perform the characterization of their solar cell and plot a graph to identify the maximum power of the solar cell.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Sec 3 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics Olevel: Current of Electricity (IV graph) Chemistry Olevel: Redox Reaction 
Group size  20 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Everything moves in our universe. In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton’s published his three laws of motion, establishing the foundation of classical mechanics. Quantities that describe motion can be calculated precisely. Motion leads to a collision, where two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Students will:  investigate the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces.
 observe and compare between elastic and inelastic collisions and determine momentum as a conserved physical quantity.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 3 to PreU 
Topics  Physics Olevel & ALevel: Dynamics (Newton’s Laws of Motion, Linear Momentum) 
Group size  15 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  2.5 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Science makes extensive use of models to describe reality. The predictive powers of models are also the foundation of technology/engineering. However, even the application of simple models can quickly result in challenging mathematical problems. Numerical simulations on computers are a much easier way to understand the behaviour of a model. Students will:  formulate mathematical models of simple mechanical systems such as the motion of projectiles including air drag, the nonharmonic motion of a physical pendulum, or the motion of a planet.
 get introduced to the principles of solving the equations of motion by numerical integration and program computers using the Python language accordingly.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 3 to PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics OLevel: Kinematics, Dynamics, Newton’s law Physics ALevel: Forces, Dynamics, Energy, Gravitational field, Motion in a circle, Oscillations Computing OLevel: Algorithms, Programming Mathematics OLevel: Rate and speed, Functions and graphs, Problems in realworld contexts, Geometry and measurement Mathematics ALevel: Functions and Graphs, Vectors, Sequences and series, Calculus, Numerical methods 
Group size  10 minimum, 24 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $15/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Much of our understanding of the world originates from investigating visible light. In this workshop, students assemble takehome cardboard spectroscopes and use them to explore the surprising variety in the composition of light (i.e. different colours/ wavelengths) from common sources. This workshop is targeted at lower secondary students and aims to cultivate their interest in using basic physical phenomena as tools for scientific exploration. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for Sec 1 to Sec 2 
Topics  Lower Secondary: Model of Matter  Atoms and Molecules, Ray Model of Light 
Group size  20 minimum, 40 maximum *Arrangements can be made to deliver this workshop for a large group of students (up to 200) 
Duration  2 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  In the 17th century, Sir Isaac Newton proposed that light must be made up of particles to explain its straightline propagation. It wasn’t until the early 19th century that the wave theory of light gained popularity when Thomas Young demonstrated diffraction effects using two closely spaced slits. This laid the foundation for a modern understanding of optics, including breakthrough applications like crystal/molecular structure analysis using Xray diffraction. In the workshop, students will explore the diffraction patterns generated by gratings and single slits, and use them to determine the wavelength of light or the size of microscopic structures. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  PreU
While this workshop covers concepts of Alevel physics syllabus, it is also suitable for upper secondary students with an aptitude for science. Workshop materials can be customised according to the learning needs of participants upon request. 
Syllabus Link  Physics ALevel: Superposition (diffraction) 
Group size  10 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  In Physics, sound is an excellent model for demonstrating wave phenomena in general. In this workshop, students will use a signal generator and oscilloscope to generate/investigate both travelling and standing (stationary) waves. Students will determine the speed of sound in 3 different ways:  based on the time of travel;
 by determining the wavelength of a standing (stationary) wave; and
 by determining the resonance frequencies of a waveguide.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  Recommended for PreU only 
Syllabus Link  Physics OLevel: Waves (general properties, sound), Interpretation of oscilloscope waveforms Physics ALevel: Oscillations and waves (resonance, frequency/wavelength determination), Superposition (stationary waves), Use of an oscilloscope 
Group size  10 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Soon after the introduction of spectral analysis in the 19th century, an empirical relation for the wavelengths of spectral lines of hydrogen atoms was found (Rydberg formula). The physical reason for this relation only became clear with the introduction of a hydrogen atom model by Niels Bohr. Bohr’s atomic model introduces key characteristics of quantum physics (e.g. de Broglie waves) at a level that is easy for students to comprehend. In the workshop, students will use a diffraction grating to measure the wavelengths emitted by a hydrogen lamp. Through careful analysis, they will not only derive the Rydberg constant but also identify the quantum numbers (electron shells) associated with each spectral line. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  PreU 
Syllabus Link  Physics ALevel: Motion in a circle, Electric field, Energy, Quantum physics (energy levels, line spectra, waveparticle duality, photons), Superposition (diffraction) Chemistry ALevel: Atomic structure (energy levels, principal quantum numbers) 
Group size  10 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Semiconductors are the basis for all the electronic gadgets we use in our everyday lives. This workshop introduces the valence/conduction band model and how it explains the rectifying characteristics of pn junctions. Students will use temperaturedependent measurements of the currentvoltage relationships of diodes to determine the size of the semiconductor bandgap (forbidden zone) as well as the charge of an electron. 
Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  PreU
While this workshop covers concepts of Alevel physics (H2) syllabus, it is also suitable for upper advanced younger students who are ahead of the syllabus requirements or have a particular aptitude for science. Workshop materials can be customised according to the learning needs of participants upon request. 
Syllabus Link  Physics ALevel: Quantum physics (energy levels), Thermal physics, Current of electricity and DC circuits 
Group size  10 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  3 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $20/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 

Description  Aside from its technological relevance, the analysis of AC circuits is a model showcase for the application of mathematical techniques to science/engineering problems that are specifically listed as a possible context for exam questions in the Alevel mathematics syllabus. Participants should have some familiarity with calculus, complex numbers, and linear algebra (vectors and matrices); special physics knowledge is not required. Students will:  use calculus to formulate equations describing AC circuits, transform them to matrix form, and solve them in terms of (complex) eigenvalues and –vectors.
 build the circuits on a breadboard and, using oscilloscopes, compare observed behaviour with their mathematical predictions.

Mode of Delivery  Workshop 
Target Audience  PreU
While this workshop covers concepts of Alevel physics (H2) syllabus, it is also suitable for upper advanced younger students who are ahead of the syllabus requirements or have a particular aptitude for science. Workshop materials can be customised according to the learning needs of participants upon request. 
Syllabus Link  Mathematics (Alevel): Functions, vectors, Complex numbers, Calculus, Differential equations Further Mathematics (Alevel): Complex numbers, Differential equations, Matrices and Linear spaces Physics (Alevel): Damped and forced oscillations, Current of electricity, Electromagnetic induction, Alternating current. Content is also closely related to quantum mechanics. 
Group size  12 minimum, 30 maximum 
Duration  2 hours 
Time  Mondays to Fridays: 9.30 am or 2.30 pm 
Course Fee  $15/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to NonInstitutional School Members) 