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CRADLΣ Teachers Professional Development Workshops

 

 

CRADLΣ Teachers Professional Development Workshops are conducted on request and delivered at Science Centre Singapore. Please enquire through cradle@science.edu.sg for programmes to be delivered in Schools.

For workshops
Suggested times  Mondays to Fridays: 9:30am or 2.30pm

Please fill in the Teacher Booking Form and email the completed to cradle@science.edu.sg or fax to 6561 6361. Kindly note that the fees for teachers workshops are as follows:

Course fee per participant

$50-80

For booking enquiries, please email cradle@science.edu.sg.

 Workshop fees indicated are for bookings by Singapore-based schools only

 More about CRADLΣ

  Title
  Physical Sciences Workshops
Digital Oscilloscopes
Diffusion Cloud Chamber
Measuring Magnetic Field Strength       
Measuring the Speed of Light (Basic / Advanced)
Speed of Sound (Basic / Advanced)
Superconductivity
Balmer Series and Bohr Atomic Model
Diffraction as Metrology Tool
Electronic Structure of Semiconductors
Optical Spectroscopy

Microcontrollers Workshops
Introduction to Microcontrollers 1 and 2
Data-Logging
Distance & Motion Sensing

Click here for the complete Professional Development Programme (Teachers Workshops and Skills Training) - Pages 52 - 54 of the CRADLΣ programme booklet.

For booking enquiries, please email cradle@science.edu.sg.


Physical Sciences Workshops  

Digital Oscilloscopes

Description

Karl Ferdinand Braun pioneered the science and engineering of wireless
communications using early oscilloscopes (Nobel prize 1909), and ever
since oscilloscopes have been among the most basic and useful
instruments in physics and engineering labs. Over the last decade,
traditional cathode ray oscilloscopes have largely given way to digital
oscilloscopes, which offer a plethora of additional functions that widen
their versatility.

“Oscilloscope literacy” is a key skill for practical exploration of fast
processes – be it for simple demonstration/observation of scientific
phenomena or for school-based research work.

Teachers will:

  • be exposed to the concepts and basic functions of contemporary
    digital oscilloscopes.
  • be aware of possible artefacts not present in traditional analogue
    oscilloscopes.
  • appreciate the usefulness of oscilloscopes in recording and
    analyzing fast processes.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Oscilloscopes. Waves. Speed (or velocity) of waves. Application of electronic instrumentation. Data analysis.
Duration 2 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fees to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Diffusion Cloud Chamber

Description

What does meteorology have to do with particle physics? In this workshop, participants will learn how a serendipitous observation led to the development of the cloud chamber particle detector by Charles Wilson (Nobel prize 1927). “The most wonderful and original instrument in scientific history”, as Lord Rutherford, the “father of nuclear physics”, called it, enabled further work resulting in several other Nobel prizes.

Teachers will:

  • construct a diffusion cloud chamber.
  • observe the different signatures left behind by ionizing radiation, such as cosmic ray particles.
  • experience and realize the omnipresence of background ionizing
    radiation.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Properties of gases, Kinetic model, Magnetic effect of a current, Force on a current-carrying conductor, Background radiation and nuclear decay.
Duration 2 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fees to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Measuring Magnetic Field Strength

Description

Besides gravity, electromagnetism is the next most encountered force
in our everyday life. It is of immense practical importance and underlies
numerous innovations that propelled humanity into the modern age –
e.g. electricity generation (motors and transformers), modern
communications and optics.

This workshop explores the relation between static magnetic fields,
electrical currents, and forces resulting from their interaction. The
methods used are of high relevance to “current events” as the
international system of units and measurements (SI) is expected to
switch to electromagnetic methods for defining base units such as the
kilogramme in the near future.
 
Teachers will:

  • measure the Earth’s magnetic field strength using a compass and a
    current-carrying conductor.
  • determine the magnetic constant (“permeability of free space”),  𝜇o
    using a current balance.
  • get a taste of how fundamental constants and units are determined
    or reproduced.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Electromagnetism, Ampere's Law, Bio- Savart Law, Forces & friction, Principle of moments, D.C. motor
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Measuring the Speed of Light (Basic / Advanced)

Description

19th century experiments (e.g. by Michelson and Morley) and new theoretical approaches (Lorentz/Einstein) established the speed of light, c, as a fundamental property that ties together space-time, the fabric of the universe. The speed of light is hence not just of great importance in the fields of optics and astronomy, but also fundamental for the microscopic structure of the world, e.g. in quantum physics. The speed of light also lies at the heart of everyday measurements: since 1983, the SI unit for length, the metre, is derived from the speed of light.

Teachers will:

  • (Basic) determine the speed of light in air using a laser diode, a photo detector, and common electronic measurement instruments.
  • (Advanced) explore and appreciate general problems in fast measurements (and how to deal with them) which may also clear some common misconceptions on how signals travel along a cable.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Speed of light. Geometric optics (mirrors). Laser diodes and photo diodes (photonics). Application of electronic instrumentation. Difference measurements. Data analysis. Optional: Finite propagation velocity of electric signals in a cable. Reflections on a cable and termination. Junction capacitance of photo diode.
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Speed of Sound (Basic / Advanced)

Description

We use sound for numerous purposes such as to communicate with people, for entertainment (music and movies) and even as a second form of sight. In physics, sound is an excellent model for introducing wave phenomena since it is easily experienced by ear and has wavelengths that are very convenient for benchtop experiments. The concepts used in this workshop are directly transferable to other waves, including advanced research.

Teachers will:

  • (Basic) determine the speed of sound in air using electronic  equipment and transducers via a “time of flight” method (distance/time) and explore reflection phenomena (echoes).
  • (Advanced) explore complementary ways of measuring the speed of sound based on standing wave patterns and resonance frequencies.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Sound. Waves. Speed (or velocity) of waves. Reflections. Stationary waves. Resonances. Application of electronic instrumentation. Data analysis.
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Superconductivity

Description

The electrical conductivity of certain materials changes dramatically as they are cooled to sufficiently low temperatures. In 1911, Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes (Nobel Prize 1913) found that some materials might enter a state where electrical resistance completely disappears. While in this superconducting state, quantum mechanical effects in the material manifest themselves at the macroscopic scale, in the form of zero electrical resistance, as well as perfect diamagnetic properties (resulting in Meissner levitation).

Teachers will:

  • learn to reliably measure very small resistances using the  4-point method.
  • conduct resistance measurements on a superconducting material as it is slowly cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures.
  • determine the critical temperature TC.
  • observe the disappearance of electrical resistance at low temperatures. 
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Principle of thermometry, Resistance and Ohm's Law, Circuit diagrams, Band theory
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Balmer Series and Bohr Atomic Model

Description

Soon after the introduction of spectral analysis in the 19th century, an empirical relation for the wavelengths of spectral lines of hydrogen atoms was found (Rydberg formula). The physical reason for this relation only became clear with the introduction of a naive quantum mechanical model of the hydrogen atom by Niels Bohr (Nobel Prize 1922). While Bohr’s atomic model is not quite right from today’s perspective, it introduces key characteristics of quantum physics (e.g. de Broglie waves, Nobel prize 1929) at a level that is easily within JC students’ reach.

Teachers will:

  • measure the wavelengths of visible spectral lines from a hydrogen lamp.
  • identify quantum numbers (electron shells) related to the observed spectral lines.
  • determine the Rydberg constant and use it derive the mass of an electron.
  • appreciate how spectroscopic evidence provides insight into the structure of atoms and molecules.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Atomic structure of matter, Atom models (in particular Bohr-Rutherford model), Energy levels in atoms, Spectroscopy & photons, Electrostatic forces (Coulomb law), Circular motion, Quantum physics vs. classical physics, Wave-particle duality and de Broglie waves
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Diffraction as Metrology Tool

Description

The study of light has been a major topic since the time of the ancient Greeks. In early 18th century, Sir Isaac Newton proposed that light must be made up of particles to explain its straight line propagation. It wasn’t until the early 19th century that the wave theory of light gained popularity when Thomas Young demonstrated diffraction effects using two closely spaced slits. This laid the foundation for a modern understanding of optics, including breakthrough applications like crystal/molecular structure analysis using X-ray diffraction (Laue and Bragg/Bragg, Nobel prizes 1914 and 1915, and many more Nobel prizes).

Teachers will:

  • appreciate how diffraction arises as a consequence of the constructive and destructive interference.
  • relate the wavelength of light, the microscopic structure of the diffracting object, and the resulting diffraction patterns to each other.
  • use the characteristics of diffraction to perform measurements of wavelengths or microscopic structure sizes. 
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Light. Waves. Geometric optics (real and virtual images). Superposition and interference. Diffraction (using transmissive and reflective gratings). Spectral lines. Babinet’s principle.
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Electronic Structure of Semiconductors

Description

Semiconductors are the building blocks in almost all modern electronics (radios, televisions, computers, cell phones) that we use in our everyday lives. While devices using semiconductors were first built based on empirical knowledge, understanding the behavior of semiconductors, through single-electron models such as the valence band / conduction band model, has been pivotal in the construction of more capable, efficient and reliable devices.

Teachers will:

  • use the band model of semiconductors to explain semiconductor characteristics and the effect of doping and temperature.
  • appreciate how a p-n semiconductor junction rectifies electric current.
  • measure the response of Schottky (metal-semiconductor) and bipolar (PN) diodes to voltage and temperature changes.
  • Using the Shockley diode equation, determine the charge of an electron and the band gap of a semiconductor. 
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Semiconductors. Band model. Diodes. Doping. p-n junction and depletion zone. Orbitals. Pauli principle. Fermi level and Fermi-Dirac statistics. Shockley equation. Thermistors.
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Optical Spectroscopy

Description

Spectroscopy is a class of techniques that investigates how radiation (such as, but not limited to light) is affected by interactions with matter. Our understanding of the micro- and macro-cosmos is largely based on spectroscopic observations. Spectroscopic techniques are also everyday characterization tools in materials science, chemistry, physics, life sciences, astronomy, and more and are taught early in chemistry.

This workshop has close links to our workshops on diffraction and Bohr’s atomic model, but focuses on qualitative characteristics of optical spectra and how they are linked to the atomic/molecular structure of materials.

Teachers will:

  • build (and keep!) a pocket spectroscope with surprisingly good performance.
  • explore characteristics of different types of spectra (atomic, molecular and solid state).
  • link the spectra to quantum concepts (energy levels, orbitals).
  • identify different types of light sources through their spectra.
  • observe Fraunhofer absorption lines in the daylight spectrum.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics Diffraction. Electromagnetic spectrum & light. Structure of atoms & origin of spectral lines. Spectral analysis. Structure of molecules/solid state matter and resulting spectra. Investigation of common light sources. Absorption and emission spectra. Fraunhofer lines.
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Microcontrollers Workshops

Introduction to Microcontrollers 1 & 2

Description 

Microcontrollers are integrated circuits (IC) chips that are able to process input and control machines and devices based on their written program. One example is the rice cooker. A microcontroller in the cooker controls the heating coil and with its array of sensors, emulates the manual cooking of rice on a stove. In our current lifestyle, it is rare to find a product that does not involve a microcontroller at some stage of its operation.

Teachers will:

  • learn about components – LEDs, piezo buzzers, light dependent resistors (LDRs), resistors.
  • learn basic programming structure, terminology and simple codes.
  • prototype circuits using the breadboard.

Participants will also be introduced to more electronic components and programming syntax. They will learn more advanced methods of controlling the same components to achieve more complex results. Concepts such as Charlieplexing and multiplexing will also be introduced and these will come in handy in future workshops when dealing with 7-segment LED displays or LED cube projects.

Teachers will:

  • learn about components – Servo motors, RGB LEDs, potentiometers.
  • learn concepts such as multi-plexing, Charlieplexing and persistence of vision (POV)
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics D.C. circuits. Electronic systems. Experimental skills and investigations (recording observations, planning, interpreting and evaluating investigations).
Duration 5 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $80/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Data-Logging

Description

Data logging is a common application in many science laboratories. In this workshop, participants will learn how to integrate micro-controllers, sensors and data storage devices to make their very own data loggers. The challenge activity will see participants designing and incorporating the different sensors to form an environmental monitoring system.

Teachers will:

  • learn about components – pH sensor, humidity / temperature sensor, gas sensor, SD card read / write module.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics D.C. circuits. Electronic systems. Experimental skills and investigations (recording observations, planning, interpreting and evaluating investigations).
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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Distance & Motion Sensing

Description

In this workshop, participants will learn about the science behind the different distance and motion sensors and integrate them with components learnt in the Introduction series to come up with real life applications. Further applications to these sensors can be found in the field of robotics.

Teachers will:

  • learn about components – PIR motion sensor, ultrasonic distance sensor, IR rangefinder.
Mode of Delivery Workshop
Topics D.C. circuits. Electronic systems. Experimental skills and investigations (recording observations, planning, interpreting and evaluating investigations).
Duration 3 hours
Time Mondays to Fridays: 9.30am or 2.30pm
Course Fee $50/pax (Admission fee to Science Centre applies to Non-Institutional School Members)
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